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Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behavior except when the healthcare provider advises that sexual intercourse be avoided for particular medical reasons.

Regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy appears to improve or maintain physical fitness. The Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee of Canada recommends that "All women without contraindications should be encouraged to participate in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises as part of a healthy lifestyle during their pregnancy".

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reports that in the past, the main concerns of exercise in pregnancy were focused on the fetus and any potential maternal benefit was thought to be offset by potential risks to the fetus.

However, they write that more recent information suggests that in the uncomplicated pregnancy, fetal injuries are highly unlikely.

It has been suggested that shift work and exposure to bright light at night should be avoided at least during the last trimester of pregnancy to decrease the risk of psychological and behavioral problems in the newborn.

The increased levels of progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy make gingivitis more likely; the gums become edematous, red in colour, and tend to bleed.

Lesions can be treated by local debridement or deep incision depending on their size, and by following adequate oral hygiene measures.

In low risk pregnancies, most health care providers approve flying until about 36 weeks of gestational age.

Full body scanners do not use ionizing radiation, and are safe in pregnancy. Each year, ill health as a result of pregnancy is experienced sometimes permanently by more than 20 million women around the world.

There is also an increased susceptibility and severity of certain infections in pregnancy. A pregnant woman may have a pre-existing disease , which is not directly caused by the pregnancy, but may cause complications to develop that include a potential risk to the pregnancy; or a disease may develop during pregnancy.

Medical imaging may be indicated in pregnancy because of pregnancy complications , disease, or routine prenatal care. Medical ultrasonography including obstetric ultrasonography , and magnetic resonance imaging MRI without contrast agents are not associated with any risk for the mother or the fetus, and are the imaging techniques of choice for pregnant women.

About million pregnancies occurred in of which million were in the developing world and 23 million were in the developed world.

Of pregnancies in , million occurred in Asia, 54 million in Africa, 19 million in Europe, 18 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 7 million in North America, and 1 million in Oceania.

The rate of pregnancy, as well as the ages at which it occurs, differ by country and region. It is influenced by a number of factors, such as cultural, social and religious norms; access to contraception; and rates of education.

The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated to be highest in Niger 7. In Europe, the average childbearing age has been rising continuously for some time.

In Western, Northern, and Southern Europe, first-time mothers are on average 26 to 29 years old, up from 23 to 25 years at the start of the s.

In a number of European countries Spain , the mean age of women at first childbirth has crossed the year threshold.

This process is not restricted to Europe. Asia, Japan and the United States are all seeing average age at first birth on the rise, and increasingly the process is spreading to countries in the developing world like China, Turkey and Iran.

In the US, the average age of first childbirth was In most cultures, pregnant women have a special status in society and receive particularly gentle care.

In many traditional societies, pregnancy must be preceded by marriage, on pain of ostracism of mother and illegitimate child.

Overall, pregnancy is accompanied by numerous customs that are often subject to ethnological research, often rooted in traditional medicine or religion.

The baby shower is an example of a modern custom. Pregnancy is an important topic in sociology of the family. The prospective child may preliminarily be placed into numerous social roles.

The parents' relationship and the relation between parents and their surroundings are also affected. A belly cast may be made during pregnancy as a keepsake.

Images of pregnant women, especially small figurines , were made in traditional cultures in many places and periods, though it is rarely one of the most common types of image.

These include ceramic figures from some Pre-Columbian cultures, and a few figures from most of the ancient Mediterranean cultures.

Many of these seem to be connected with fertility. Identifying whether such figures are actually meant to show pregnancy is often a problem, as well as understanding their role in the culture concerned.

Among the oldest surviving examples of the depiction of pregnancy are prehistoric figurines found across much of Eurasia and collectively known as Venus figurines.

Some of these appear to be pregnant. Due to the important role of the Mother of God in Christianity , the Western visual arts have a long tradition of depictions of pregnancy, especially in the biblical scene of the Visitation , and devotional images called a Madonna del Parto.

The unhappy scene usually called Diana and Callisto , showing the moment of discovery of Callisto 's forbidden pregnancy, is sometimes painted from the Renaissance onwards.

Gradually, portraits of pregnant women began to appear, with a particular fashion for "pregnancy portraits" in elite portraiture of the years around Pregnancy, and especially pregnancy of unmarried women, is also an important motif in literature.

Anatomical model of a pregnant woman; Stephan Zick — ; ; Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Statue of a pregnant woman, Macedonia.

Bronze figure of a pregnant naked woman by Danny Osborne , Merrion Square. Modern reproductive medicine offers many forms of assisted reproductive technology for couples who stay childless against their will, such as fertility medication , artificial insemination , in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.

An abortion is the termination of an embryo or fetus, either naturally or via medical methods. Legality of socially indicated abortions varies widely both internationally and through time.

In most countries of Western Europe, abortions during the first trimester were a criminal offense a few decades ago [ when?

Many countries have various legal regulations in place to protect pregnant women and their children. Maternity Protection Convention ensures that pregnant women are exempt from activities such as night shifts or carrying heavy stocks.

Maternity leave typically provides paid leave from work during roughly the last trimester of pregnancy and for some time after birth. Notable extreme cases include Norway 8 months with full pay and the United States no paid leave at all except in some states.

Moreover, many countries have laws against pregnancy discrimination. In the United States, some actions that result in miscarriage or stillbirth are considered crimes.

One law that does so is the federal Unborn Victims of Violence Act. In , the American state of Tennessee passed a law which allows prosecutors to charge a woman with criminal assault if she uses illegal drugs during her pregnancy and her fetus or newborn is considered harmed as a result.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Time when children develop inside the mother's body before birth. This article is about pregnancy in humans.

For other mammals, see Pregnancy mammals. For fish, see Pregnancy in fish. Main article: Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy.

Further information: Complications of pregnancy. Main article: Gestational age. Main article: Estimated date of delivery.

See also: Human fertilization. Main articles: Human embryonic development , Prenatal development , and Fetus. Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization.

Gestational age of 6 weeks. Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization. Gestational age of 10 weeks. Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization.

Gestational age of 20 weeks. Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization. Gestational age of 40 weeks. Main article: Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy.

Main article: Childbirth. Further information: Preterm birth and Postterm pregnancy. Main article: Postnatal. Further information: Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy.

Further information: Pregnancy test. Main article: Obstetric ultrasonography. Main articles: Prenatal care and pre-conception counseling.

Main article: Nutrition and pregnancy. Main article: Pharmaceutical drugs in pregnancy. Further information: Environmental toxicants and fetal development.

Play media. Main article: Sexual activity during pregnancy. See also: Prenatal dental care. Main article: Complications of pregnancy. Further information: Pre-existing disease in pregnancy.

Main article: Medical imaging in pregnancy. See also: Pregnancy rate and Advanced maternal age. Main article: Pregnancy in art.

Main article: Infertility. Main article: Abortion. Archived from the original on 19 March Retrieved 14 March Archived from the original on 10 September Archived from the original on 26 February Fetal and neonatal physiology 4th ed.

Archived from the original on 2 April Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Studies in Family Planning. Essential anatomy and physiology in maternity care Second ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone.

Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 6 March The Lancet. Global Health. The Johns Hopkins manual of gynecology and obstetrics 4th ed.

The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 12 December Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.

Archived from the original on 8 September Retrieved 9 March MedicineNet, Inc. Archived from the original on 9 July Retrieved 27 September Retrieved 16 January Discovery Communications, LLC.

Archived from the original on 19 January Merck Manual Home Health Handbook. Archived from the original on 10 November BMJ Clinical Evidence.

Updated by: David C. Dugdale, Susan Storck. Also reviewed by David Zieve. Created November University of California San Francisco. Retrieved 30 November Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology.

Healthline Networks, Inc. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 13 January American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Taking Charge of Your Fertility Revised ed. New York: HarperCollins. Archived from the original on 25 April Retrieved 10 July Handbook of Brain and Behaviour in Human Development.

Archived from the original on 19 September Oxford: Oxford University Press. Louisiana Department of Health.

Retrieved 22 August National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 23 August Immunology of pregnancy. Medical intelligence unit. Georgetown, Tex.

The New England Journal of Medicine. Archived from the original on 20 November Teratology, Teratogens, and Fetotoxic Agents". Williams obstetrics 24th ed.

Archived from the original on 27 December Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 19 September Archived from the original on 15 September All Things Considered.

Archived from the original on 23 July Retrieved 20 August UpToDate, Inc. Archived from the original on 7 October Retrieved 24 August Medem, Inc.

Archived from the original on 29 April Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Archived from the original PDF on 30 December Retrieved 18 January Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine.

Archived from the original on 28 February Retrieved 11 March Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 14 September Archived from the original on 15 January Channel 4.

Archived from the original on 23 January Retrieved 22 January Retrieved 19 March Human chorionic gonadotropin hCG 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics. Archived from the original on 31 December Human Factors. Archived from the original on 1 April Obstetrics in family medicine: a practical guide.

Current clinical practice 2nd ed. Cham, Switzerland: Humana Press. Retrieved 10 November Obstetrics and Gynecology. Prenatal care: effectiveness and implementation.

Handbook of nutrition and pregnancy. Nutrition and health. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. Choose MyPlate. Archived from the original on 17 November Retrieved 15 November Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.

Acta Paediatrica. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Bioactive Lipids, Nutrition and Health. Bulletin of the World Health Organization.

Archived from the original on 7 August Retrieved 25 August Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on 25 August The Journal of Family Health Care.

Journal of Perinatology. Human Nutrition. Clinical Nutrition. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation". Evidence Syntheses. Archived from the original on 3 December Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 16 November Archived from the original on 18 November Canadian Family Physician.

The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. May Outcomes of Maternal Weight Gain. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 23 June Fact sheet.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Archived from the original on 14 December Institute of Medicine. Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 29 July July Health Technology Assessment, No.

Archived from the original on 29 October Genetic Alliance. Retrieved 25 July Een ander politiek bijzonder in het oogspringend probleem zijn de die de elektriciteitsbedrijven gemaakt hebben.

De frustratie is des te groter geheugen sterrenbeelden datum. In de visie van de Commissie, zoals gepresenteerd in de onlangs aangenomen mededeling, wordt het begrip bestuur breed en open gedefinieerd en is het een zinvol en praktisch begrip.

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Alternatively there are mobile apps , which essentially always give consistent estimations compared to each other and correct for leap year , while pregnancy wheels made of paper can differ from each other by 7 days and generally do not correct for leap year.

Furthermore, actual childbirth has only a certain probability of occurring within the limits of the estimated due date. A study of singleton live births came to the result that childbirth has a standard deviation of 14 days when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound , and 16 days when estimated directly by last menstrual period.

Through an interplay of hormones that includes follicle stimulating hormone that stimulates folliculogenesis and oogenesis creates a mature egg cell , the female gamete.

Fertilization is the event where the egg cell fuses with the male gamete, spermatozoon. After the point of fertilization, the fused product of the female and male gamete is referred to as a zygote or fertilized egg.

The fusion of female and male gametes usually occurs following the act of sexual intercourse. Pregnancy rates for sexual intercourse are highest during the menstrual cycle time from some 5 days before until 1 to 2 days after ovulation.

Fertilization conception is sometimes used as the initiation of pregnancy, with the derived age being termed fertilization age.

Fertilization usually occurs about two weeks before the next expected menstrual period. A third point in time is also considered by some people to be the true beginning of a pregnancy: This is time of implantation, when the future fetus attaches to the lining of the uterus.

This is about a week to ten days after fertilization. The sperm and the egg cell, which has been released from one of the female's two ovaries , unite in one of the two fallopian tubes.

The fertilized egg, known as a zygote , then moves toward the uterus, a journey that can take up to a week to complete.

Cell division begins approximately 24 to 36 hours after the female and male cells unite. Cell division continues at a rapid rate and the cells then develop into what is known as a blastocyst.

The blastocyst arrives at the uterus and attaches to the uterine wall, a process known as implantation. The development of the mass of cells that will become the infant is called embryogenesis during the first approximately ten weeks of gestation.

During this time, cells begin to differentiate into the various body systems. The basic outlines of the organ, body, and nervous systems are established.

By the end of the embryonic stage, the beginnings of features such as fingers, eyes, mouth, and ears become visible. Also during this time, there is development of structures important to the support of the embryo, including the placenta and umbilical cord.

The placenta connects the developing embryo to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply.

The umbilical cord is the connecting cord from the embryo or fetus to the placenta. After about ten weeks of gestational age — which is the same as eight weeks after conception — the embryo becomes known as a fetus.

Sex organs begin to appear during the third month of gestation. The fetus continues to grow in both weight and length, although the majority of the physical growth occurs in the last weeks of pregnancy.

Electrical brain activity is first detected between the fifth and sixth week of gestation. It is considered primitive neural activity rather than the beginning of conscious thought.

Synapses begin forming at 17 weeks, and begin to multiply quickly at week 28 until 3 to 4 months after birth. Although the fetus begins to move during the first trimester, it is not until the second trimester that movement, known as quickening , can be felt.

This typically happens in the fourth month, more specifically in the 20th to 21st week, or by the 19th week if the woman has been pregnant before.

It is common for some women not to feel the fetus move until much later. During the second trimester, most women begin to wear maternity clothes.

During pregnancy, a woman undergoes many physiological changes, which are entirely normal, including behavioral , cardiovascular , hematologic , metabolic , renal , and respiratory changes.

Increases in blood sugar , breathing , and cardiac output are all required. Levels of progesterone and estrogens rise continually throughout pregnancy, suppressing the hypothalamic axis and therefore also the menstrual cycle.

A full-term pregnancy at an early age reduces the risk of breast , ovarian and endometrial cancer and the risk declines further with each additional full-term pregnancy.

The fetus is genetically different from its mother, and can be viewed as an unusually successful allograft.

Many symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy like nausea and tender breasts appear in the first trimester. During the second trimester, most women feel more energized, and begin to put on weight as the symptoms of morning sickness subside and eventually fade away.

The uterus, the muscular organ that holds the developing fetus, can expand up to 20 times its normal size during pregnancy.

Final weight gain takes place during the third trimester, which is the most weight gain throughout the pregnancy.

The woman's abdomen will transform in shape as it drops due to the fetus turning in a downward position ready for birth. During the second trimester, the woman's abdomen would have been upright, whereas in the third trimester it will drop down low.

The fetus moves regularly, and is felt by the woman. Fetal movement can become strong and be disruptive to the woman. The woman's navel will sometimes become convex, "popping" out, due to the expanding abdomen.

Head engagement , where the fetal head descends into cephalic presentation , relieves pressure on the upper abdomen with renewed ease in breathing.

It also severely reduces bladder capacity, and increases pressure on the pelvic floor and the rectum. It is also during the third trimester that maternal activity and sleep positions may affect fetal development due to restricted blood flow.

For instance, the enlarged uterus may impede blood flow by compressing the vena cava when lying flat, which is relieved by lying on the left side.

Childbirth, referred to as labor and delivery in the medical field, is the process whereby an infant is born.

A woman is considered to be in labour when she begins experiencing regular uterine contractions, accompanied by changes of her cervix — primarily effacement and dilation.

While childbirth is widely experienced as painful, some women do report painless labours, while others find that concentrating on the birth helps to quicken labour and lessen the sensations.

Most births are successful vaginal births, but sometimes complications arise and a woman may undergo a cesarean section.

During the time immediately after birth, both the mother and the baby are hormonally cued to bond, the mother through the release of oxytocin , a hormone also released during breastfeeding.

Studies show that skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn immediately after birth is beneficial for both the mother and baby. A review done by the World Health Organization found that skin-to-skin contact between mothers and babies after birth reduces crying, improves mother—infant interaction, and helps mothers to breastfeed successfully.

They recommend that neonates be allowed to bond with the mother during their first two hours after birth, the period that they tend to be more alert than in the following hours of early life.

In the ideal childbirth labor begins on its own when a woman is "at term". Sometimes if a woman's water breaks or she has contractions before 39 weeks, birth is unavoidable.

Babies born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation have better outcomes than babies born either before or after this range. Events after 42 weeks are considered postterm.

The postnatal period, also referred to as the puerperium , begins immediately after delivery and extends for about six weeks.

The beginning of pregnancy may be detected either based on symptoms by the woman herself, or by using pregnancy tests.

However, an important condition with serious health implications that is quite common is the denial of pregnancy by the pregnant woman.

About one in denials will last until around the 20th week of pregnancy. The proportion of cases of denial, persisting until delivery is about 1 in This condition is known as a false pregnancy.

Most pregnant women experience a number of symptoms, [60] which can signify pregnancy. A number of early medical signs are associated with pregnancy.

Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests , [64] which detect hormones generated by the newly formed placenta , serving as biomarkers of pregnancy.

Obstetric ultrasonography can detect fetal abnormalities , detect multiple pregnancies , and improve gestational dating at 24 weeks.

Prenatal medical care is the medical and nursing care recommended for women during pregnancy, time intervals and exact goals of each visit differ by country.

The aim of good prenatal care is prevention, early identification, and treatment of any medical complications. Nutrition during pregnancy is important to ensure healthy growth of the fetus.

Adequate periconceptional time before and right after conception folic acid also called folate or Vitamin B 9 intake has been shown to decrease the risk of fetal neural tube defects, such as spina bifida.

DHA omega-3 is a major structural fatty acid in the brain and retina, and is naturally found in breast milk. Several micronutrients are important for the health of the developing fetus, especially in areas of the world where insufficient nutrition is common.

Women are counseled to avoid certain foods, because of the possibility of contamination with bacteria or parasites that can cause illness.

Women are also counseled to eat seafood in moderation and to eliminate seafood known to be high in mercury because of the risk of birth defects.

The amount of healthy weight gain during a pregnancy varies. The Institute of Medicine recommends an overall pregnancy weight gain for those of normal weight body mass index of During pregnancy, insufficient or excessive weight gain can compromise the health of the mother and fetus.

Drugs used during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. The use of recreational drugs in pregnancy can cause various pregnancy complications.

Intrauterine exposure to environmental toxins in pregnancy has the potential to cause adverse effects on prenatal development , and to cause pregnancy complications.

Pregnant women can also be exposed to toxins in the workplace , including airborne particles. The effects of wearing N95 filtering facepiece respirators are similar for pregnant women as for non-pregnant women, and wearing a respirator for one hour does not affect the fetal heart rate.

Most women can continue to engage in sexual activity throughout pregnancy. Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behavior except when the healthcare provider advises that sexual intercourse be avoided for particular medical reasons.

Regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy appears to improve or maintain physical fitness. The Clinical Practice Obstetrics Committee of Canada recommends that "All women without contraindications should be encouraged to participate in aerobic and strength-conditioning exercises as part of a healthy lifestyle during their pregnancy".

The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists reports that in the past, the main concerns of exercise in pregnancy were focused on the fetus and any potential maternal benefit was thought to be offset by potential risks to the fetus.

However, they write that more recent information suggests that in the uncomplicated pregnancy, fetal injuries are highly unlikely.

It has been suggested that shift work and exposure to bright light at night should be avoided at least during the last trimester of pregnancy to decrease the risk of psychological and behavioral problems in the newborn.

The increased levels of progesterone and estrogen during pregnancy make gingivitis more likely; the gums become edematous, red in colour, and tend to bleed.

Lesions can be treated by local debridement or deep incision depending on their size, and by following adequate oral hygiene measures.

In low risk pregnancies, most health care providers approve flying until about 36 weeks of gestational age.

Full body scanners do not use ionizing radiation, and are safe in pregnancy. Each year, ill health as a result of pregnancy is experienced sometimes permanently by more than 20 million women around the world.

There is also an increased susceptibility and severity of certain infections in pregnancy. A pregnant woman may have a pre-existing disease , which is not directly caused by the pregnancy, but may cause complications to develop that include a potential risk to the pregnancy; or a disease may develop during pregnancy.

Medical imaging may be indicated in pregnancy because of pregnancy complications , disease, or routine prenatal care. Medical ultrasonography including obstetric ultrasonography , and magnetic resonance imaging MRI without contrast agents are not associated with any risk for the mother or the fetus, and are the imaging techniques of choice for pregnant women.

About million pregnancies occurred in of which million were in the developing world and 23 million were in the developed world.

Of pregnancies in , million occurred in Asia, 54 million in Africa, 19 million in Europe, 18 million in Latin America and the Caribbean, 7 million in North America, and 1 million in Oceania.

The rate of pregnancy, as well as the ages at which it occurs, differ by country and region. It is influenced by a number of factors, such as cultural, social and religious norms; access to contraception; and rates of education.

The total fertility rate TFR in was estimated to be highest in Niger 7. In Europe, the average childbearing age has been rising continuously for some time.

In Western, Northern, and Southern Europe, first-time mothers are on average 26 to 29 years old, up from 23 to 25 years at the start of the s. In a number of European countries Spain , the mean age of women at first childbirth has crossed the year threshold.

This process is not restricted to Europe. Asia, Japan and the United States are all seeing average age at first birth on the rise, and increasingly the process is spreading to countries in the developing world like China, Turkey and Iran.

In the US, the average age of first childbirth was In most cultures, pregnant women have a special status in society and receive particularly gentle care.

In many traditional societies, pregnancy must be preceded by marriage, on pain of ostracism of mother and illegitimate child.

Overall, pregnancy is accompanied by numerous customs that are often subject to ethnological research, often rooted in traditional medicine or religion.

The baby shower is an example of a modern custom. Pregnancy is an important topic in sociology of the family.

The prospective child may preliminarily be placed into numerous social roles. The parents' relationship and the relation between parents and their surroundings are also affected.

A belly cast may be made during pregnancy as a keepsake. Images of pregnant women, especially small figurines , were made in traditional cultures in many places and periods, though it is rarely one of the most common types of image.

These include ceramic figures from some Pre-Columbian cultures, and a few figures from most of the ancient Mediterranean cultures.

Many of these seem to be connected with fertility. Identifying whether such figures are actually meant to show pregnancy is often a problem, as well as understanding their role in the culture concerned.

Among the oldest surviving examples of the depiction of pregnancy are prehistoric figurines found across much of Eurasia and collectively known as Venus figurines.

Some of these appear to be pregnant. Due to the important role of the Mother of God in Christianity , the Western visual arts have a long tradition of depictions of pregnancy, especially in the biblical scene of the Visitation , and devotional images called a Madonna del Parto.

The unhappy scene usually called Diana and Callisto , showing the moment of discovery of Callisto 's forbidden pregnancy, is sometimes painted from the Renaissance onwards.

Gradually, portraits of pregnant women began to appear, with a particular fashion for "pregnancy portraits" in elite portraiture of the years around Pregnancy, and especially pregnancy of unmarried women, is also an important motif in literature.

Anatomical model of a pregnant woman; Stephan Zick — ; ; Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Statue of a pregnant woman, Macedonia. Bronze figure of a pregnant naked woman by Danny Osborne , Merrion Square.

Modern reproductive medicine offers many forms of assisted reproductive technology for couples who stay childless against their will, such as fertility medication , artificial insemination , in vitro fertilization and surrogacy.

An abortion is the termination of an embryo or fetus, either naturally or via medical methods. Legality of socially indicated abortions varies widely both internationally and through time.

In most countries of Western Europe, abortions during the first trimester were a criminal offense a few decades ago [ when? Many countries have various legal regulations in place to protect pregnant women and their children.

Maternity Protection Convention ensures that pregnant women are exempt from activities such as night shifts or carrying heavy stocks.

Maternity leave typically provides paid leave from work during roughly the last trimester of pregnancy and for some time after birth.

Notable extreme cases include Norway 8 months with full pay and the United States no paid leave at all except in some states.

Moreover, many countries have laws against pregnancy discrimination. In the United States, some actions that result in miscarriage or stillbirth are considered crimes.

One law that does so is the federal Unborn Victims of Violence Act. In , the American state of Tennessee passed a law which allows prosecutors to charge a woman with criminal assault if she uses illegal drugs during her pregnancy and her fetus or newborn is considered harmed as a result.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Time when children develop inside the mother's body before birth. This article is about pregnancy in humans.

For other mammals, see Pregnancy mammals. For fish, see Pregnancy in fish. Main article: Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy.

Further information: Complications of pregnancy. Main article: Gestational age. Main article: Estimated date of delivery. See also: Human fertilization.

Main articles: Human embryonic development , Prenatal development , and Fetus. Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization. Gestational age of 6 weeks. Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization.

Gestational age of 10 weeks. Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization. Gestational age of 20 weeks. Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization.

Gestational age of 40 weeks. Main article: Maternal physiological changes in pregnancy. Main article: Childbirth. Further information: Preterm birth and Postterm pregnancy.

Main article: Postnatal. Further information: Symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy. Further information: Pregnancy test. Main article: Obstetric ultrasonography.

Main articles: Prenatal care and pre-conception counseling. Main article: Nutrition and pregnancy. Main article: Pharmaceutical drugs in pregnancy.

Further information: Environmental toxicants and fetal development. Play media. Main article: Sexual activity during pregnancy. See also: Prenatal dental care.

Main article: Complications of pregnancy. Further information: Pre-existing disease in pregnancy. Main article: Medical imaging in pregnancy.

See also: Pregnancy rate and Advanced maternal age. Main article: Pregnancy in art. Main article: Infertility.

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Archived from the original on 19 September Oxford: Oxford University Press. Reverso for Windows It's free Download onze app gratis.

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Het maatschappelijk profiel van de leerlingen en de gezinnen waaruit zij afkomstig zijn, lijkt een belangrijker factor te zijn op scholen met meer kansarme leerlingen.

Het is naar mijn mening van zeer groot belang dat zij met eigen ogen kunnen zien welke problemen er spelen en in wat voor vreselijke omstandigheden sommige landen en volken zich bevinden.

Om te beginnen is de inspanning van iedereen nodig om het klimaat van religieuze haat dat zich verspreidt te keren en om tolerantie en aanvaarding van diversiteit te bevorderen.

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